Welwyn Hatfield: The area of Welwyn Hatfield covers the two towns of Welwyn Garden City and Hatfield, along with numerous smaller settlements from Woolmer Green in the north to Little Heath in the south. Each of the towns has a railway station on the East Coast Main Line and they are close to the A1 road. The fountain situated in Parkway next to the town centre is Welwyn Garden City’s ‘jewel in the crown’ and was built in celebration of Queen Elizabeth II’s Coronation in 1953.
Woolmer Green: Situated to the north, between the villages of Welwyn and Knebworth, Woolmer Green was first settled in the Iron Age. The Belgae colonised the area in the 1st century BC, and later it was settled by the Romans. Many Roman artefacts have been found in the surrounding area with a Roman bath house existing at nearby Welwyn.
Tewin: The village dates back at least, to Anglo-Saxon times and its name has its origins in the English as spoken in that era. Tewin is known to have been settled by the Angles in 449 AD; the name being a derivative of the Old English words for the Norse god Týr (“Tiw”) and meadow (“Ing”). However the name varies over the centuries - in the Domesday Book it is Tewinge and Theinge - and in the 16th century Tewinge, Tewing and Twying, but it is thought the village became Tewin in the 18th century.
Welwyn: Situated in the valley of the River Mimram, Welwyn was first settled in the Iron Age. The Belgae colonised the area in the 1st century BC (although the Catuvellauni are more often associated with this area) and later it was settled by the Romans. Many Roman artefacts have been found, and the remains of a Roman bath house may be visited. Much later, in the 17th century, as it lies on the old
Digswell: Digswell is an ancient village which is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book. Digswell's name may be derived from Deacon's Well. There were once two Manors, with 2 water Mills, with much land under plough, and a large area of woodland. Little changed until 1922 when part of the estate once belonging to Lord Cowper of Panshanger was sold at auction, and bought by a group of pioneers of the Garden City Movement including Ebenezer Howard. Nearby is the famous Welwyn Viaduct. Originally opened by Queen
Sherrardspark Wood: Located on the
Hatfield: In the Saxon period Hatfield was known as Hetfelle, but by the year 970, when King Edgar gave 5,000 acres (20 km2) to the monastery of Ely, it had become known as Haethfeld. Hatfield is mentioned in the Domesday Book as the property of the Abbey of Ely, and unusually, the original census data which compilers of Domesday used still survives, giving us slightly more information than got into the final Domesday record. Hatfield's Domesday entry shows a small settlement with two watermills and a population of 55. The mill at Mill Green is thought to occupy the site of one of the original Domesday Book mills.
Coincidentally, William the Conqueror may have brought along a man whose descendants played an important part in Hatfield's history in the 20th Century. In his autobiography, Sky Fever, Sir Geoffrey de Havilland reveals that a cousin who researched their family tree produced a genealogy which noted a 'De Havylland' as one of the Conqueror's officers or knights.
No other records remain from that time until 1226, when Henry III granted the Bishops of Ely rights to an annual four-day fair and a weekly market. The town was then called Bishop's Hatfield. Hatfield House is the seat of the Cecil family, the Marquesses of Salisbury. Elizabeth Tudor was confined there for three years in what is now known as "The Old Palace" in
Hatfield House: Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the
Lemsford: The village and parish of Lemsford is situated near Welwyn Garden City and was created out of Hatfield parish in 1858.
Brocket Hall: Brocket Hall was built for Sir Matthew Lamb, 1st Baronet, in around 1760 to designs by the architect James Paine. It stands on the site of two predecessors, the first of which was built in 1239 and the second in about 1430. In 1865 Lord Palmerston, who was Prime Minister at the time, died while staying at the Hall.
Cuffley: The railway had an important impact on the development of the village. Cuffley was reached by the Great Northern Railway in 1910, as part of the plan to create the Hertford Loop Line, as a strategic alternative to the main line out of Kings Cross to the North, by extending the line from Enfield Chase. In 1939, the Scout Association purchased part of the Tolmers Park Estate that lies within the Parish of Cuffley. Tolmers Scout Camp, was opened on Whit Saturday 1940 by Lord Wigram.
Welham Green: Welham Green is a village in the parish of North Mymms,
Essendon: The village and civil parish of Essendon is located 6 miles south-west of the town of
Other Villages Nearby Include:
Little Berkhamsted: Situated to south-east of Essendon, Little Berkhamsted can trace its past back to Saxon times and perhaps beyond. The village’s greatest claim to fame is that it was here that William the Conqueror accepted the surrender of the City of
Hertingfordbury and the Five Greens: Hertingfordbury is a village to the west of Hertford town in
Codicote: A large village, and civil parish about seven miles south of Hitchin, Codicote entered into the written records for the first time in the year 1002, when King Æthelred the Unready, its owner, sold it by means of a charter for the sum of 150 mancusae, or 900 shillings of pure gold to his 'faithful minster' Ælfhelm. It was described as being 'five measures of ground' (of uncertain extent) and known as 'Æt Cuthingcoton'. Shortly after this it passed to the Abbot and Chapter of St Albans Abbey. A 2007 BBC programme Christina: a Medieval Life, presented by Michael Wood, focused upon the life and times of Christina Cok (d. 1348) in Codicote, studying the archives relating to her father's acquisition of field strips and marketplace property, which she took over in the 14th century. She won a consistory court case over her claim to the rights to her land.
Ayot Green, a typical traditional English village, centred around a village green - an old coaching inn once stood opposite the Green; and,
Ayot St.Peter. The
Datchworth: Datchworth is a village and civil parish between the towns of Hertford,
Bull's Green: Bull's Green lies in a densely wooded upland area which consists of a gently undulating landscape with settlements of different ages. It is situated at the junction of
Bramfield: Bramfield is a little village with old cottages surrounding the village green. The church, St Andrews is a
Wheathampstead: Wheathampstead is a village and civil parish in the City and District of St Albans. Settlements in this area were made about 50 BC by Belgae invaders, moving up the rivers Thames and Lea from what is now
Watton-at-Stone: The name Watton first appeared in writing in an eleventh century publication of tenth century Anglo-Saxon wills as Wattun. It was later recorded in the Domesday Book as both Wodtune and Watone. The origin of the word is uncertain, and is variously ascribed to Old English wád, or woad, and ton meaning small farming settlement; or waden meaning ford; or from waétan meaning watery. The suffix -at-Stone dates from the early thirteenth century and is derived from the presence of two large examples of Hertfordshire puddingstone, now situated at the Waggon and Horses public house.
Knebworth: Knebworth is a village and civil parish located to the north of Woolmer Green. There is evidence of people living in the area of Knebworth as far back as Neolithic times and it is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 where it is referred to as Chenepeworde (the farm belonging to the Dane, Cnebba) with a population of 150. The original village, now known as Old Knebworth, developed around Knebworth House. Development of the newer Knebworth village started in the late 19th century centred a mile to the east of Old Knebworth on the new railway station and the
Kimpton: Kimpton is situated between the Mimram and
The first reference to Hertfordshire (as"Heortford") appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle's entry for 1011. However, the county's true origins lie about a century earlier, with the establishment of the two burhs of Hertford by Edward the Elder in 912 and 913 respectively.
(source: Wikipedia - http/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Hertfordsh)
The first part heort, means, ‘deer crossing’, the second, ‘ford’, means, watercourse. This is why the symbol of Hertfordshire has always contained as least one dear and reference to a body of water.
After the Norman Invasion, Edgar the Ætheling (the successor to Harold Godwinson) surrendered to William the Conqueror at Berkhamsted.
In 1261 King Henry III held parliament in the county of Hertfordshire. In 1295, another parliament was held in St Albans.
Bedmond, a small village about two miles from Abbots Langley, is famed as the birthplace of the only Englishman ever to become Pope.
The Royal Navy has used six vessels with the name ‘HMS St.Albans’.
From 1808 to 1814, St.Albans hosted a station in the shutter telegraph chain which connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth.
The discovery of Middle Stone age flints suggests Hatfield has been a site of human habitation for thousands of years.
Hatfield's first mention in recorded history dates back to before the Domesday Book (commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1085 AD and completed the following year). 2011 is Hatfield House's 400th anniversary.
Peter the Wild Boy
Peter the Wild Boy was a mentally handicapped boy from Hanover in Northern Germany who was found in 1725 living wild in the woods near Hamelin (Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), the town of Pied Piper legend.
The boy, of unknown parentage, had been living an entirely feral existence, surviving by eating forest flora; he walked on all fours, exhibited uncivilized behaviour, and could not be taught to speak a language.
Once found, he was brought to Great Britain by order of George I, whose interest in the unfortunate youth had been aroused during a visit to his Hanover homeland.
He was given the name of Peter, but was variously known as the "Wild Peter", "Peter of Hanover", or, most famously, "Peter the Wild Boy".
After George I's death in 1727 Peter was given in charge to a schoolmistress, Mrs King of Harrow and then to a farmer, James Fenn of Axter's End farm, Northchurch, Hertfordshire, with an annual allowance provided by Queen Caroline.
Peter remained at this farm until Fenn's death when his care was taken over by Fenn's brother, Thomas of Broadway farm. He was to live here for the remainder of his life.
Peter died in 1785 and was buried in Northchurch (nr Berkhampstead), Hertfordshire and his grave can still be seen in the churchyard of St Mary's, directly outside the main door to the church.
Did You Also Know This?:
1. The traditional English "V-sign" insult dates back hundreds of years. During The Hundred Years War, the French would chop off the two fingers of any English longbowmen who were unfortunate enough to be captured. In defiant response to this, before the commencement of battle, English longbowmen would taunt the French by giving them the two fingered salute.
2. The fact that we drive on the left hand side of the road owes itself to medieval times, when it was easier to attack someone with your sword as they came towards you on your right side.
4. All English males over the age of 14 are required by law to have two hours of longbow practice each week.
5. The English language is the most widely spoken of all languages and is also the international language of air traffic control. All international pilots must be able to speak English as well as all air traffic controllers.
6. In English law, when we swear on the bible the right hand is always raised. This stems from the medieval practice of branding thieves on the palm of the hand. Everyone in court was required to show their hand to see if they had previously been branded.
7. The “Union Jack” should only be called the “Union Jack” when it is flown from the Jack Mast of a British ship. At all other times it should be called the Union Flag.
8. St George was made the Patron Saint of England by Edward III in 1349.
11. Many of the words and phrases from Shakespeare’s plays have entered our everyday language. You may find yourself reciting Shakespeare without even knowing it. Here are a few examples...
“To be or not to be”
“More in sorrow than anger”
“To thine own self be true”
“Murder most foul”
“To the manner born”
“More sinned against than sinning”
“The prince of darkness”
“The wheel has come full circle”
“Is this a dagger which I see before me”
“A charmed life”
The Merchant of
“With bated breath”
“Love is blind”
The Merry Wives of
“The world’s mine oyster”
“What the dickens…”
“As good luck would have it”
Midsummer Night’s Dream
“The course of true love never did run smooth”
Romeo and Juliet
“What’s in a name”
“A rose by any other name would smell as sweet”
“Parting is such sweet sorrow"
12. Scots can still be jailed and whipped for entering
14. Ever since the making of the film “Zulu” popular belief has always been that it was mainly a “Welsh” defence of Rorke’s Drift that took place during the Zulu war of 1879. The action is firmly set in people’s minds as being fought by Welshmen of the South Wales Borderers (24th Foot). In fact the regiment was the Warwickshire regiment in 1879 and only became the SWB in 1881. Like most regiments of the time it recruited from across the
15. The modern “Scottish” kilt was invented in the 1730’s by Englishman Thomas Rawlinson. A Lancastrian industrialist, he clothed his Scottish workers in the garment to save money on trousers.
16. Welsh national costume was invented in the 1830’s by Englishwomen Augusta Waddington. She was married to a government minister called Benjamin Hall who the bell “Big Ben” at
17. Many Scots and English share common ancestors. During the mid sixth century lowland
18. Three-quarters of the world's electronic communication is in English and more than eighty per cent of the data stored in the world's computers is in English. The largest English dictionaries list around four hundred thousand words with the French and German languages containing less than half of this vocabulary. Around eight hundred million people speak English as a first or second language. An estimated one hundred million further, speak English fluently as a foreign language and at least several hundred million more people speak "broken" English taking the total number of people who are able to communicate in English well past the one billion mark..
19. The much-derided Sir Douglas Haig, who while the Supreme Commander of the British Forces during WW1 picked up the nickname “The Butcher of the
20. Any English person who has spent even the shortest amount of time in
21. During Anglo-Saxon times English craftsmen were producing swords of equal or superior quality 600 years before the Japanese were to produce the famed Samurai blades.
22. The language “Scots” is actually a dialect of English.
23. Many of
24. Mel Gibson’s fictional masterpiece “Braveheart” is historically correct in one respect. The Scottish armies did actually use to “moon” at their English adversaries. There was a strange belief among the Scots that the English had tails and baring their backsides was a taunt to our supposedly deformed ancestors.
25. In 1969, Pope Paul VI reformed the calendar of the Catholic Church. As a result, St George was placed on a list of “doubtful saints” – those whose credentials owed more to myth than historical fact. (Incidentally, St. Patrick - who supposedly banished the snakes from
26. Before his funeral 321,360 people filed past Churchill’s coffin as he lay in state. That was 16,000 more than did likewise for George VI.
27. The quintessentially Irish tune "Danny Boy" is actually English. It was actually written by Englishman Frederic Edward Weatherly who died in 1929 having never set foot in
28. Over the past 250 yeas English men and women have been responsible for nearly 4 out of every 5 major inventions, discoveries and new technologies. Japanese research shows that more than half of the world’s most useful inventions since 1945 were made by English people. For comparison the Americans have contributed less than 1/5 of the world’s useful inventions since 1945
29. It was the English historian The Venerable Bede who first began the practice of referring to events after the birth of Christ using the now-familiar notation anno domini ('in the year of our Lord', abbreviated to AD).
30. The Saxons were so called because of the style of fighting knife that they often carried. The “Seax” could be as small as a penknife for everyday use or as large as a sword. Saxon literally means “the sons of the sword”
31. St Patrick the Patron Saint of Irish, the most Irish of Irish, was born in the late 300s to mid-400s Banna
32. The first draft of the Magna Carta was written at St Albans Abbey in 1213. Two years later, King John was in
English people have been responsible for some of the world’s best innovations.
To have produced Shakespeare,
Thomas Savery (1650-1715). Invented the first commercial steam engine - a steam pump.
Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729). Improved Savery's engine by introducing the piston.Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter, founder of the Wedgwood company, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. A prominent abolitionist, Wedgwood is remembered for his "Am I Not A Man And A Brother?" anti-slavery medallion. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. He was the grandfather of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin
Richard Trevithick (1771 - 1833). Invented the high pressure steam engine. Built the first steam locomotive.
George Stephenson (1781-1848). Made the railway a practical reality.
Abraham Darby (1678-1717). Developed the process of smelting iron using coke.
Sir Henry Bessemer, (1813-1898). Devised a process for making steel on a large scale.
James Hargreaves (1722-1778). Invented the spinning jenny.
John Kay (1733-1764). Invented the flying shuttle.
Samuel Crompton (1753-1827). Invented the spinning mule.
Richard Arkwright (1732-1792). Invented the waterframe.
Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823). Invented the power loom.
John Harrison (1693-1776) First to build watches accurate enough to solve the longitude measurement problem.
Edward Jenner (1743-1823). Developed vaccination.
Joseph Lister (1827-1912). Developed antiseptics.
Sir Joseph Whitworth (1803-1887). Standardised screw threads, produced first true plane surfaces in metal, developed ductile steel.
Henry Maudslay (1771-1831). Invented the screw-cutting lathe and the first bench micrometer that was capable of measuring to one ten thousandth of an inch.
Joseph Bramah (1748-1814). Invented the hydraulic press.
John Walker (1781- 1859). Invented the first friction matches.
John Smeaton (1724-1792). Made the first modern concrete (hydraulic cement).
Joseph Aspdin (1788-1855). Invented Portland Cement, the first true artificial cement.
Humphrey Davy (1778-1829). Invented the first electric light, the arc lamp.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867). Invented the electric motor.
Sir Isaac Pitman (1813-1897). Devised the most widely used modern shorthand.
Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802 - 1875). Developed an electric telegraph at the same time as Samuel Morse.
Rowland Hill (1795-1879). Invented adhesive postage stamps.
John Herschel (1792-1871). Invented the blueprint.
William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877). Invented the negative-positive photography and latent image shorter exposure time.
George James Symons (6 Aug 1838 - 10 Mar 1900) Founded and managed the British Rainfall Organisation, a widely distributed network of rainfall data collection sites throughout the British Isles.
Sir Joseph William Swan (1828-1914). Invented the dry photographic plate. Invented, concurrently with
Sir William Henry Perkin (1838-1907). Created the first artificial dye - aniline purple or mauveine - and the first artificial scent, coumarin.
Alexander Parkes (1813-90). Created the first artificial plastic, Parkensine.
Sir George Cayley (1773-1857). Worked out the principles of aerodynamics, his On Ariel Navigation showed that a fixed wing aircraft with a power system for propulsion, and a tail to assist in the control of the airplane, would be the best way to allow man to fly. Also invented the caterpillar track.
Sir Frank Whittle (1907-1996). Took out the first patents for a Turbojet.
Sir Christopher Cockerell (1910-1999). Invented the hovercraft.
Charles Babbage (1792-1871). Worked out the basic principles of the computer.
Alan Turin (1912-1954). Widely considered the father of modern computer science - worked out the principles of the digital computer.
Tim Berners-Lee (1955-). Invented the World Wide Web defining HTML (hypertextmarkup language), HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and URLs (Universal Resource Locators).